In the United States, Flipside (created by Al Kowalewski, Pooch (Patrick DiPuccio), Larry Lash (Steven Shoemaker), Tory, X-8 (Sam Diaz)) and Slash (created by Steve Samioff and Claude Bessy) were important punk fanzines for the Los Angeles scene, both of which debuted in 1977. In 1977, Bruce Milne and Clinton Walker merged their respective punk fanzines Plastered Press and Suicide Alley in Australia to form Pulp. Milne invented the fanzine cassette in 1980 with Fast Forward.   In the American Midwest, a fanzine called Touch and Go describes the region`s hardcore scene from 1979 to 1983. We Got Power describes the Los Angeles scene from 1981 to 1984 and includes show reviews and interviews with bands such as DOA, The Misfits, Black Flag, Suicidal Tendencies and The Circle Jerks. My Rules was a photozine that included photos of hardcore concerts from the United States, and in Effect, released in 1988, depicted the New York punk scene. Among the latest titles, Maximum RocknRoll is a large punk fanzine with more than 300 issues published. Following the popular and commercial resurgence of punk in the late 1980s and beyond, with the growing popularity of bands such as Sonic Youth, Nirvana, Fugazi, Bikini Kill, Green Day and The Offspring, a number of other punk fanzines appeared, such as Dagger, Profane Existence, Punk Planet, Razorcake, Slug and Lettuce, Sobriquet and Tail Turns. The first American punk fanzine Search and Destroy eventually became the influential fringe cultural magazine Re/Search. Russ observed that while science fiction fans despised Star Trek fans, Star Trek fans despised K/S writers. Kirk/Spock fanzines included fanfiction, illustrations, and poetry created by fans.
The fanzines were then sent to fans on a mailing list or sold at conventions. Many had high production values and some were sold at congressional auctions for hundreds of dollars.  Each fanzine is widely labeled, making aimless research a thing of the past. Other major zine festivals around the world include the San Francisco Zine Fest, Brooklyn Zine Fest, Chicago Zine Fest, Feminist Zine Fest, Amsterdam Zine Jam, and Sticky Zine Fair. At any zine feast, the zine ester can be its own independent distributor and publisher by simply standing behind a table to sell or trade its work. Over time, zinesters have added posters, stickers, buttons and patches to these events. In many libraries, schools and community centers around the world, zinesters organize meetings to create, share and share the art of zine creation. Malcolm Willits and Jim Bradley founded The Comic Collector`s News in October 1947.
 In 1953, Bhob Stewart published The EC Fan Bulletin, which created the EC fandom for imitative entertaining comedy fanzines. Among the wave of EC fanzines that followed, the most famous was Hoo-Hah! by Ron Parker! In 1960, Richard and Pat Lupoff founded their science fiction and comic book fanzine Xero, and in 1961, Jerry Bails` alter ego, dedicated to costumed heroes, became a focal point for superhero comics.  The UCI`s special collections hold archives of fanzines. To browse the collection and perhaps do your own research on the medium and its contribution to social movements, follow the link below. Calvin T.`s The Diary of Frankenstein Beck (later Frankenstein`s Castle) and Gary Svehla`s Gore Creatures were the first horror fanzines created as more serious alternatives to the popular 1958 Forrest J Ackerman magazine Famous Monsters of Filmland. [ref. needed] Garden Ghoul`s Gazette – a 1960s horror title edited by Dave Keil, then Gary Collins – was later directed by Frederick S. Clarke and became the prestigious Cinefantastique magazine in 1967. It later became a prozine under the direction of journalist and screenwriter Mark A. Altman and continued as a webzine.  Richard Klemensen`s Little Shoppe of Horrors, with a particular focus on “Hammer Horrors,” began in 1972 and has been published since 2017.  The Baltimore-based Black Oracle (1969-1978) by writer George Stover was a small fanzine that evolved into the larger Cinemacabre format.
Bill George, Stover`s Black Oracle partner, published his own short-lived zine The Late Show (1974–1976; with co-editor Martin Falck) and later became editor of the Cinefantastique Prozine spin-off Femme Fatales. [ref. needed] In the mid-1970s, North Carolina teenager Sam Irvin published the horror/science fiction fanzine Bizarre, which included his original interviews with British actors and filmmakers. Irvin later became a producer and director himself.  Greg Shoemaker`s Japanese Fantasy Film Journal (JFFJ) (1968-1983) reported Godzilla from Toho and his Asian brothers. Japanese Giants (JG) was published in 1974 and was published for 30 years.  G-FAN was published in 1993 and reached its 100th regular edition in the fall of 2012.  FXRH (special effects by Ray Harryhausen) (1971-1976) was a specialized zine co-created by future Hollywood FX artist Ernest D.