Rules in Determining Type Lines

Figures 136 and 137 are tent arches with loop formations in the pattern area, but with deltas on the loops, making it impossible to obtain a comb count. The character lines are parallel from the left in Figures 136 and 137. These tent arches have two of the characteristics of the loop, recurve and delta, but it lacks the third, the number of combs. [Page 39] This equipment, which is discussed in more detail in the section on printing deceased persons, consists of a spatula, a small roller and a curved support for the single-finger block. Figure 380 shows the spatula, roller and curved support. It should also be noted in Figure 380 that there is a strip of the entire hand of the fingerprint card as well as individual finger blocks that have been cut off from the fingerprint card. Each of these types can be used in conjunction with the curved support. In the central pocket loop, one or more of the simple curves of the simple loop type usually curve a second time to form a pocket in the loop. However, the second classic arc does not need to be a continuation of the first or even be connected to it. It can be an independent ridge. Fingerprint-based criminal identification is one of the most effective factors in achieving the apprehension of refugees who might otherwise evade arrest and continue their criminal activities indefinitely.

This type of identification also makes it possible to accurately determine the number of previous arrests and convictions, which naturally leads to the imposition of fairer sentences by the judiciary, since the person who repeatedly breaks the law is unable to impersonate the first offender or minor. In addition, this identification system allows the prosecutor to present his or her case in light of the offender`s history. It also provides probation officers, the parole board and the governor with clear information on which to base their judgment when dealing with criminals under their jurisdiction. In the vortex group, the Central Pocket Loop subclassification type is used for expansion purposes only. In the general classification, it is designated by the letter “W”. Figures 213 to 236 are central pocket loops. Figure 311 is a tent arch. There are three loop formations, each of which is spoiled by an appendage that borders its curvature between the shoulders at right angles.

It cannot be classified as random because the patterns are all of the same type, i.e. tent arches. A random type of vortex is a combination of two or more different types of patterns that exclude the simple arc. Figure 305 shows, although it shows an appendage on each curve to the left, is classified as a vortex of the central pocket loop type, with two deltas and a curve in front of each. In order to spoil the curve of a vortex, the appendage must be connected to the curvature at the point of contact with the flow line. Cameras of this type are available in models powered by batteries and 110-volt electricity. The battery-powered type is believed to have the greatest advantage, as home electricity may not be available at the crime scene. When not in use, the batteries should be removed, as they will eventually deteriorate and corrode the camera`s brass contacts. In Figure 60, there is a ridge marked “A” which enters on one side of the indentation and, after another curvature, runs an imaginary line drawn from core C to delta D and ends on the same side of the indentation from which it entered, marked “B”, fulfilling all the requirements for defining a loop.

X and Y are the character lines. It is noted in Figure 61 that there is a ridge that occurs on one side of the print [Pg 20], curves and runs an imaginary line drawn from the delta to the core. It does not end on the side from which it entered, but tends to do so. In this case, all the requirements of the loop have been met and therefore classified as such. It is important to note that the above definition is very broad; However, for the purpose of expansion, this model can be divided into large groups in which the vertebrae predominate. Although this extension can be used, all types of vertebrae are grouped under the general classification “vertebrae” and designated by the letter “W”. Fingerprint cards should be placed in cabinets, preferably made of steel, according to the fingerprint classification sequence. It is further proposed that the cabinets have three drawers high, with each drawer divided into three rows for storage. These cabinets or similar can be obtained from various commercial sources. Figure 412 shows the type of fingerprint cabinet used in the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Vortex, central pocket loop – A type of pressure diagram with two deltas and at least one friction burr that forms a complete circuit, which can be spiral, oval, circular or any variant of a circle; An imaginary line drawn between the two deltas does not touch or cross the “central pocket” (the curved ridges in the inner pattern area).

In simple arcs, ridges enter on one side of the footprint and flow or tend to flow on the other with a rise or wave in the middle. The single sheet is the simplest of all fingerprint models and can be easily distinguished. Figures 107 to 118 are examples of a single sheet. It should be noted that there may be different ridge formations such as end ridges, bifurcations, spikes and islets involved in this type of model, but they all tend to follow the general contour of the ridge; that is, they enter on one side, make a rise or wave in the middle and sink or tend to flow on the other side. ● If an impression is so scarred that neither the general nature of the pattern nor the tracking or counting of the crest can be determined with reasonable accuracy, and it happens that the corresponding finger of the other hand is healed in the same way, both patterns receive the arbitrary value of the vertebrae with meeting marks. Angles are never formed by a single ridge, but by hitting one ridge against another. Therefore, an angular formation cannot be used as a type line. In Figure 18, ridges A and B connect at an angle.

Ridge B is not parallel to Ridge D; ridge A does not diverge. The C and D grids are therefore the character lines. Primary classification: To obtain the primary classification, numeric values are assigned to each of the ten [Pg 88] numeric spaces, as shown in Figure 347. Wherever a vortex appears, it takes the value of the space in which it is located. Spaces where pattern types other than vortices are present are not taken into account in the calculation of the primary pattern. Figure 102 is a sketch that reflects the different types of burrs that the classifier will encounter when counting loop patterns. Arc, smooth – A type of pressure diagram where friction grooves enter on one side of the pressure and flow on the other side with a rise or wave in the middle. As mentioned earlier, the FBI service is provided free of charge to regularly trained law enforcement agencies and officials. Shipments of fingerprint cards and stamped and addressed envelopes will be forwarded at the request of an enforcement officer. The following types of cards and forms are available: criminal (Form FD-249), which is used for arrest and institutional records; applicant (Form FD-258); Personal identification (Form FD-353); death sheet (Form R-88); Disposition sheet (Form R-84); Notice of Sought (Form 1-12); Report of re-arrest (Form 1-1).

An Identification Equipment Order Form is published monthly with the FBI Enforcement Bulletin Supplement. Figure 416 shows the back of the 3 x 5-inch memory card. These are stored alphabetically in special cabinets. A memory card must also be created for each alias used by a person. Figure 417 shows an electrically operated filing cabinet in which the plugs are stored. It is recommended that alias cards be a different color than the one with the correct name, known as “Master”. Each alias card should also include the correct person`s name for reference and comparison purposes. For convenience and accuracy, as in fingerprint files, these files should also have appropriate wayfinding maps. [Page 166] The method of obtaining primary school is probably best illustrated by illustrations. For example, suppose there is a vertebra only in the right index finger.

Follow by Email